Artificial intelligence: Can a machine think and behave like humans do?

In the era of 21st century word Artificial intelligence has taken place significantly. Saudi Arabia says it has become the first country in the world to grant citizenship to a robot named as Sophia. It was presented as an example of how robot technology and artificial intelligence will make machines more human-like in the future. Artificial intelligence is nothing but a machine which behaves exactly like a human. It is accomplished by studying how human brain thinks, and how humans learn, decide, and work while trying to solve a problem, and then using the outcomes of this study as an input of developing intelligent software and systems. It is the ability of machine to learn and reason thorough analogy, analyse, interpret information, recognise speech, visual perception and take decisions. In other words, AI is application of human intelligence by the machines. Artificial intelligence has its own potential as well as some sorts of drawback which can be taken as challenges.

It has been continuously told that India has the potential of demographic dividend because highest youth living here. In the era of Artificial intelligence, it would be difficult to suppose ourselves as the leader in the coming future based on demographic dividend. Technical development is taking place where machine is working more efficiently than men. Pace of using concept of Artificial intelligence will dilute those differences which is created on the basis of demographic dividend. Work has been doing extensively in this area to take its advantages. Main goal of artificial intelligence is that to create an expert system which exhibit intelligent behavior, learn, demonstrate, explain, and advice its users. After creating the expert system next work will be the implementation of Human intelligence in machines.

There are different types of Artificial intelligence like Algorithm, Machine learning, Narrow AI, General AI and Bots. It has been divided based on work doing. Algorithm in which machine performs an algorithmic function for data processing, calculations and automated reasoning. In the concept of machine learning machine is performed with partial programming. Computer will analyse and interpret the information and derive logical inferences. Huge research has been going on above two. But Artificial intelligence like Narrow AI has been used in Apple’s Siri or Microsoft Cortana. Here they are designed to answer the questions they understand. So, machine is programmed for single set of tasks and it keeps executing it. In General AI machine imitates human cognitive actions and can improve its learning abilities. Other programs like enables the machine to perform automated tasks like adding a reminder or appointment to the calendar are done by Bot type AI.

Artificial Intelligence has great potential of solving many issues existing in our society. It works more correctly than human and chance of getting error is very less as compared to Human intelligence. It is also the fact of the matter is that Human made the Artificial intelligence, but the capacity of working is more than human. Several philosophical questions are being asked related to Artificial Intelligence. Are the dangerous to humanity? How can we ensure that machines can behave ethically and that they are used? Is it possible for machines to have a mind, consciousness, and mental states in the same sense that human beings do? Can a machine be sentient, and thus deserve certain rights? Can a machine intentionally cause harm? Such kind of questions are repeatedly being asked by the people.

Artificial intelligence needs inputs. If such kind of inputs are feed, then it could give the desire output related to emotions and predict the feeling. For example, collect the input data of your girlfriend’s behaviour for some years and create that kind of intelligence. Neuron will study the data, analyse and give inference accordingly as the prediction of behaviour of your girlfriend. So indirectly we can say that it has the potential to predicting emotions based on giving correct input data of past few years. So, expecting machines exactly like human is very difficult since we have come to the world through biological processes and Artificial intelligence is created by the human through technical process. My best aspect on this issue is that it would assist the human to perform their activities and works efficiently and effectively with minimum error.

Sophia, the female robot, was introduced at a large investment conference in the Saudi capital, Riyadh. She took part in a group discussion in front of a crowd. Even she tried to express her expressions, but it was not exactly like a human being. Artificial Smiling and other expression found in that conference. Replacing Human exactly is not easy for machine. So, we can’t use Artificial intelligences blindly anywhere without control. In case if we left the Artificial intelligence without control then it could be dangerous for us. Job related issues is one thing. Other concern would be security threat. Countries would use such artificial intelligence for cross border infiltration which causes more border tensions and bad relations among human beings. Apart from that job threat would be another matter of concern which will destabilize the country.

Automation has already rendered a huge number of people jobless all around the world. Adding artificial intelligence will make people more jobless. India that will have largest working age population by 2020. IT sector, with its large number of skilled and unskilled labors, is particularly being considered to be vulnerable in this context. This is the reason why tertiary sector contributes maximum share in it’s GDP. Subsequently, India’s GDP on number will grow but people purchasing power will fall. An inverse relation will be created due to AI. After some one major question would become prominent that who will buy the product produced by Artificial Intelligence since people would don’t have purchasing power to procure it. Directly or indirectly economic upheaval may be created.

Another major concern is about difficulties in regulation of machines in the human society. For example, how can the self-driven cars that crash be held accountable for their actions? Who would be liable for that mess? Honor or Artificial Intelligence? If you let honor as a culprit, then it would be ethically wrong to verdict so. If you let Machine as a culprit, then how would going to punish it? Along with the human sentiments, basic human values like morality and ethics would not exist in a machine dominated world. Such a society can lose out on factors like belongingness, warmth, brotherhood etc. Concern related to environment is also there. An AI running a mining and energy sector company will use all possible means to extract natural resources for profit maximization disregarding the consequences on environment and tribals or natives residing therein.

Along with serious challenges, Artificial intelligence has great potential. In Automotive are where I am graduating has significant scope. Artificial Intelligence can drive vehicles and be an autopilot for spaceships. In this role, AI can prevent accident and chart out optimal route for fuel savings while avoiding traffic or blockades. Another side benefit is coming as fuel saving and less impact on environment. Apart from that we can use AI for further technical development of internal combustion engine by optimising the parameters. Emissions coming out from the vehicles can be controlled by using the concept of Artificial Intelligence. For example, many research has been doing where concept of machine learning is being used to make significant changes in parameters inside the engines. It could be used to reduce emissions like NOx from I.C. Engine by optimising its parameters like injection timing, injection pressure and dwell timing.

Artificial intelligence finds extensive and significant application in Medical Science where robots can perform complex surgeries with precision, record the huge amount of information that can be used for individualized treatment and research work. Machine learning is being used for faster, cheaper and more accurate diagnosis and thus improving patient outcomes and reducing costs. AI hospital administrator can make logistical arrangement with such efficiency that all eyes, kidneys and livers reach from dead donors to new recipients. Same kind of concepts can be used in the case of FCI procurement and PDS-food distribution. Apart from that AI can serve as virtual ‘Personal Secretary’ with its speech recognition and decision-making capabilities.

As a teacher, AI can deliver customized lectures depending on grasping power of a student and can tirelessly work on weaker students even after school hours. Major problem of having deserving teachers in schools can be sorted out. Chances of having quality of education and meeting the need of good teacher along with growing population is possible through Artificial intelligence. AI could study all the research papers available at ‘google scholar’ and create new knowledge between theories and models which is not humanly possible. This can greatly improve the accuracy of existing models for forecasting weather, disasters or economic downturns. Such kind of extensive work will also help in getting quality of research in education area.

In conclusion, I can that Artificial Intelligence equipped robots can perform tasks with more precision than humans ranging from delicate surgery to handling of dangerous nuclear reactions or conducting counter terrorism operations. It has huge potential of solving problems related to economy, environment, education and medicine. But on the other hand, major concern related to human ethics and security threat could exist. Being rational I can estimate that AI has the capability to assist the mankind as a friend or helping hand. Thus, for better or for worst, a large-scale adaption of AI is bound to change the lives of the mankind.

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